A Study Proposes Five New Distinct Types of Adult-Onset Diabetes

04 March, 2018, 02:04 | Author: Clint Gray
  • Researchers propose 5 distinct types of adult-onset diabetes

"This new substratification might eventually help to tailor and target early treatments to patients who would benefit most, thereby representing a first step towards precision medicine in diabetes", the researchers said.

Researchers then distinguished 5 distinct clusters that differ from today's classification: 3 severe and 2 mild forms of the disease.

Group 1, SAID (severe autoimmune diabetes): essentially corresponds to type 1 diabetes and LADA (latent autoimmune diabetes in adults), and is characterised by onset at young age, poor metabolic control, impaired insulin production and the presence of GADA antibodies.

Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 90 percent to 95 percent of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults, according to the CDC, was split into four groups.

The 5 subtypes are genetically distinct with no mutations, concluding that the types are not different stages of the same disease.

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The new study offers a new division for diabetes, and identifies five clusters of patients.

"To support people to maintain a healthy weight and be more active, Bradford City and Bradford District Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) are offering people at significant risk of diabetes across Bradford a place on the new NHS diabetes prevention programme". Type 2 diabetes - usually diagnosed in adults - develops when the body can not produce enough insulin the right way.

Researcher at the Institute for Molecular Medicine in Finland, also involved in the study, said the results marked a 'paradigm shift, in the way diabetes could be treated in the future.

The study was published in the peer-reviewed medical journal The Lancet. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that the immune system mistakenly attacks the beta cells in the pancreas, which produce insulin. Type 1, an autoimmune condition where insulin is not produced and usually develops in childhood, and Type 2, a condition that develops in later life and is usually linked to obesity. People either don't produce enough insulin or their body's cells don't respond to it, with varying degrees of severity.

For the study, researchers monitored 13,270 newly diagnosed diabetes patients ranging in age from 18 to 97. "They clearly need insulin very soon, nearly as much as "type 1", he said. This group was at greatest risk of diabetic eye damage or retinopathy.

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Still, the findings seem to be a positive step toward improved treatment of diabetes, which affects more than 420 million people worldwide.

Type 1 diabetes is a malady of the safe framework, which influences around 10% of individuals with the condition in the UK. New research confirms that in general it's most commonly diagnosed in the young.

Improved understanding may allow necessarily treatment to be tailored and help us recognise which patients are more likely to develop complications.

While the study had limited non-Scandinavian involvement, similar studies are in the works in China and India with people of different ethnic backgrounds.

The most common was one of the more moderate forms, seen in the elderly and affecting 39-47% of the patients.

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Researchers did not observe between-cluster differences for age- and sex-adjusted coronary event and stroke risk, and no genetic variant was associated with all the clusters.

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